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March: The month of Gram Positive Rods:

1) Neisseria gonorrhoeae:

Location they are commonly found: Urethra, cervix, rectum or throat.In babies the eyes.

General information: In many cases patients do not have symptoms and a s a result they are unware that they are infected.

Symptoms and Illnesses:

  • Thick yellow/ green discharge.

  • Dysuria.

  • Intermenstrual bleeding.

  • Septic arthritis.

  • Rectum: discharge from the anus include pus and blood, itchy anus.

  • Sore throat and swollen lymph nodes.

  • Conjuctivitis.

  • Untreated gonorrohea results in pelvic inflammatory disease in women.

  • Can also lead to disseminated gonococcal infection if untreated.

  • Infertility.

Mode of transmission:

  • Unprotected sex.

  • Transmission can also be through sex toys.

  • Babies can also contract it from their mothers when passing through the birth canal during labour.

2) Neisseria meningitidis:

  • Location they are commonly found:

  • Throat.

  • It is thought that a small percentage of people always carry this bacteria in their throat, however their bodies immune system keeps the bacteria under control most of the time,

General information:

  • Mass gatherings such as religious pilgrimages can facilitate the spread of this bacteria resulting in epidemics.


  • Meningococcal meningitis – common cause in children and adults.

Mode of transmission:

  • Droplets – this can be via respiratory or throat secretions.

  • Close contact: via kissing and living with someone with the inection.

3)Moraxella Catarralis:

Location they are commonly found:

  • In the respiratory tract of young children, but it does not often cause infection.

  • Immunocompromised adults can have it in their respiratory tract.

General information:

  • Second commonest organism responsible for exacerbation of COPD.


  • Respiratory infections -  Acute and chronic sinus infections, not typically but can also cause bronchitis and pneumonia.

  • Middle ear infections - Acute Otitis Media

  • Conjuctivitis.

  • Meningitis in newborns.

  • Joint infections.

Risk groups:

  • Immunocompromised children can develop severe respiratory infections.

4) Veillonella spp.​

Location they are commonly found: 

  • Flora of mouth and gastrointestinal tract.

  • Can also be found in the vagina.

General information:

  • Literature notes that the bacteria can be mistaken for gonococcal infection and is also noted as contaminant in cultures.

  • Other literature also notes that it does not commonly cause infections in humans.


  • Oral infections

  • Soft tissue infections.

  • Bite wounds

  • Head and neck infections.​

  • Sinus infections

  • Heart infections

  • Lung infections

  • Bone infections and septic arthritis.

  • Meningitis.

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