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March: The month of Gram Positive Rods.

1) Clostridium Difficle:

Location: Commonly found in the intestine. 

General information:People can be carriers, which means that the bacteria is present but they do not experience symptoms.


  • Fever

  • Diarrhoea

  • Abdominal Pain.

  • Fever


  • Colitis

  • Formation of a pseudomembrane.


Mode of Transmission:

  • Contact with infected diarrhoea

  • These bacteria form spores

  • From infected surfaces

  • Through hands, objects and clothing.

Risk factors:

  • Antibiotic therapy

  • Long term hospitalization

  • Immunocompromised

  • PPI

  • GI surgery



  • Variety of foods and can also be found in food processing plants.

General information:

  • Uncommon condition which is self limiting.


  • Diarrhoea

  • Vomiting

  • Fever

  • Rigors

  • Muscle ache.


  • Listeriosis.

Mode of Transmission:

  • Mainly from food.

  • In regards to the kinds of foods that Listeria can be contracted from, it is those foods which are ready to eat( nil further cooking required). Particularly cooked sliced meats, cured meats, smoked fish smoked fish, pate and ready made sandwiches and salads.

  • Unpasteurised milk.

  • Farm animals

  • Contact with those who are already infected with Listerosis.

Risk factors:

  • Immunocompromised

  • Newborns

  • Elderly people

  • Pregnant women.

3)Corynebacterium diphtheriae


  • Upper respiratory tract.

General information:

  • Can be protected against through routine vaccination programmes.


  • Sore throat

  • Fever

  • Swelling of the neck or area surrounding the skin lesion.

  • Swollen glands

  • Weakness

  • Specific sign is thick grey membrane at the back of the throat that can be life threatening.

  • Nasal discharge


  • Diphtheria arises as a result of the potent bacterial

  • toxin produced by the bacteria.

Mode of Transmission:

  • Direct contact with infected persons.

  • Infected people coughing and sneezing – droplets are inhaled.

  • Contact with infected personal items.

Risk factors:

  • Visiting or living in a country in which the risk of contracting Diphtheria is high.

  • Unimmunised.

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